Artificial intelligence and human rights: risks, opportunities and regulation

Interdisciplinary research project funded by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (2021-2023) No. TL05000484


The relationship between AI and human rights is, for now, double-edged. AI brings great benefits to all sectors of society and strengthens progress, social well-being and economic competitiveness. At the same time, however, it poses risks to a variety of human rights and fundamental freedoms, be it due to the intrinsic technological processes, human input or its abusive or malicious use in practice.

The aim of the project is to identify and assess the risks and opportunities in the relationship between AI and human rights and to propose solutions how AI technologies should be developed, used and regulated in order to prevent human rights violations and support their further progress and protection.

An intedisciplinary team of international law and human rights law experts, AI and IT experts and Czech law and EU law specialists carry on the research project in the framework of the consortium of the Ambis University, AI Center of the Czech Technical University, Institute of Law and Technology of Masaryk University and as the application garantor.

cover image generated by Midjourney, prompt: „two heads facing each other one realistic human head and one digital head (matrix style) in blue“
  • Ambis

    Martina Šmuclerová

    Principal investigator, Head of International team

    "Dr. Martina Šmuclerová is Public International Law expert specializing in international law and new technologies (space law, cyber law, artificial intelligence), law of international security, law of international organizations and human rights. She received her PhD and MA in Public International Law from the Sorbonne University, Paris, France (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne). Dr. Šmuclerová has been a Senior Lecturer at Institut d’études politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) since 2011 where she leads various courses in Public International Law. As a Research Fellow in Public International Law at Ambis University in Prague since 2020, she’s the Principal Investigator of the interdisciplinary grant research project “Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights: Risks, Opportunities and Regulation”. In 2012-2019, Dr. Šmuclerová served as International Law adviser and diplomat at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic and Representative to the United Nations, EU and other international fora. She initiated and led several international law projects such as the UN Space Debris Compendium or the first CZ control review at the UN HRC Universal Periodic Review. She holds French Government Scholarships and other awards."

  • CTU

    Luboš Král

    Head of AI team

    "Dr. Luboš Král received his PhD degree at Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) in the field of Control Engineering and Robotics. He serves as Deputy Head of the Artificial Intelligence Centre at the CTU Department of Computer Science. He has worked mainly on projects linking research and development, including automation in areas like journalism, media, "mission-critical" and "life-critical" systems, and the business partnership with large producers of medical devices and telecommunication systems in the transport sector. Dr. Král focuses on interconnection of research teams and building relationship with application partners, mainly in informatics, artificial intelligence and machine learning. He is the Head of the Artificial Intelligence team in the research project “Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights: Risks, Opportunities and Regulation”."

  • CTU

    Jan Drchal

    Machine Learning expert

    "Dr. Jan Drchal received his PhD degree at Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) in the field of Artificial Intelligence. His primary research focus is machine learning and he has worked on several projects applying AI methods to natural language processing, including approaches to automatic fact-checking and the development of assistive tools, transportation research, social simulations, and robotics. Dr. Drchal works as an expert on AI methodologies in the research project “Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights: Risks, Opportunities and Regulation”."


    Lukáš Kačena

    Application garantor


    Lenka Kučerová

    Head of team


  • MUNI

    Jakub Míšek

    Head of MUNI Law team

  • MUNI

    Veronika Příbaň Žolnerčíková

    Researcher in Law

    "Mgr. Veronika Příbaň Žolnerčíková is an ICT law expert, a researcher at the Institute of State and Law of the Czech Academy of Sciences and a researcher at the Masaryk University Faculty of Law. She graduated from the Faculty of Law of Charles University. Currently she is a PhD student at the Institute of Law and Technology at the Faculty of Law, MU. Her research focuses on legal aspects of artificial intelligence. She has also worked on the law of new technologies in her previous practice at the Legislative Department of the Ministry of Justice and in a law firm. Veronika Příbaň Žolnerčíková occasionally participates in teaching at Masaryk University and other universities. "

  • MUNI

    Jakub Harašta

    Researcher in Law

  • MUNI

    Monika Hanych

    Researcher in Law


Prevention of human rights violation:

To assure the effective implementation of human rights norms in the AI domain, it is first necessary to identify the root causes of the human rights violations within the AI life cycle in order to formulate a remedy.

  • The root causes can reside in all phases of the AI life cycle, starting with the incomplete input data, passing by a biased transfer learning, up to a malicious application.
  • The corresponding remedies can be diverse: problems might be solved via e.g. a technical adjustment of the machine learning procedure, rules on the processing of data, or a more robust legal interference restricting or banning the development and use of certain AI technologies.

A comprehensive approach linking international human rights and AI expertise is thus indispensable in order to provide a holistic and solution-oriented viewpoint.

Phase: June 2021 – September 2022; formulation of recommendations for the government and actors of the AI life cycle (October 2022 – March 2023)

Support for human rights protection:

Current shortcomings in human rights protection may be diminished by the automatisation of the respective human acitivities.

Sector-based analysis is in progress (since November 2022).

Focus on:

  • justice, detention, discrimination, freedom of expression, disappearances, refugees, asylum seekers and migrants, police violence, child rights, disability rights, rights of older people, climate change, indigenous peoples, right to dignity, sexual reproductive rights

Phase: November 2022 – May 2023

Current research results

  • identification of the root causes of human rights violation throughout the whole AI life cycle and formulation of the remedy:
    • ŠMUCLEROVÁ, M., KRÁL, L., DRCHAL, J., AI life cycle and human rights: risks and remedies in TEMPERMAN J. and QUINTAVALLA A. (eds.): Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2023
  • presentation by Martina ŠMUCLEROVÁ of research results on the biased AI (prohibition of discrimination) at the International Law and Technological Progress Conference 2022 on 23 June 2022 in Aberdeen, UK (to be published by Elgard Publ. in International Law and Technology series 2023)
    • ŠMUCLEROVÁ, M., KRÁL, L., DRCHAL, J., Non-biased AI as utopia?: The challenge to produce a non-discriminatory AI technology
  • Report about the risks of human rights violation by AI technologies and possible remedies (September 2022, in Czech) submitted to the Government of the Czech Republic and relevant actors of AI life cycle (public-private sphere)
  • Interdisciplinary workshop “Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights” held on 29 September 2022 at the CIIRC??? of the Czech Technical University with governmental and AI private sector representatives
    • link na fotky (…)